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    [国立民族学博物館(National Museum of Anthropology)/フィリピン・マニラ]


    フィリピンの首都マニラの国立民族学博物館において、16世紀にマニラ湾外のフォーテュン島 (Fortune Island) 沖で沈没したスペインのガレオン船サンディエゴ号から引き揚げられた数多くの人工遺物が展示されている。 16世紀のタイムカプセルが現代において開封されたかのようである。そして、展示パネルには、サンディエゴ号の船歴略史、オランダの海賊船 モーリシャス号との戦闘とサンディエゴ号の沈没の系譜、サンディエゴ号から引き揚げられた人工遺物などについて記されており、 多くのことを学ぶことができる。展示パネルの主な説明書き (英文) をここにまとめて紹介する。
    [注] 日本語文は英語キャプションのフルの対訳翻訳ではなく、編者用の主要点の下書きである。

    §01 .... The wreck of the San Diego was discovered at a depth of 170 feet. It contained more than 5,000 artifacts representing a veritable time capsule of the known world (America, Europe and Asia) at the time. ...

    §02 The Discovery of the San Diego サンディエゴ号の発見
    The accounts of the battle of the San Diego and the Mauritius are incomplete. To rectify this, Patrick Lize, an historian, conducted extensive research in the archives of Seville, Madrid, and The Netherlands to look for new information that would shed light on the battle. From the testimony of 22 survivors, memoirs of two priests from Manila and the inventory of both the weapons and provisions on the San Diego, a more accurate reconstruction of the battle was made possible.

    §03 Franck Goddio, an underwater archeology enthusiast, and his team, in coordination with the National Museum and financially supported by Foundation Elf, conducted underwater explorations to find the San Diego. They discovered the wreck about 50 meters deep near Fortune Island, outside of Manila Bay. It was undisturbed and formed a sand-covered hill of 25 meters long, 8 meters wide and 3 meters high. A cannon rising out of the sand with the inscription 'Philip II' made the identification easier.

    水中考古学者Franck Goddioおよび彼のチームは、フィリピン国立博物館と調整しながら、エルフ財団(Foundation Elf)の財政支援をえて サンディエゴ号を発見すべく水中探査を実施した。ゴッディオ・チームはマニラ湾外のフォーチュン島(Fortune Island)沖1.4kmの 水深50メートル(180ft)で沈船を発見した。沈船の位置は1991年4月に特定された。海底では長さ25m、幅8m、高さ3mの砂の盛り上がりを 形成していた。砂からはみ出していた大砲には「フィリップII(Philip II)」と記され年代の鑑定を容易にした。

    §04 At enormous expense and with modern underwater technology and a team of 50, the San Diego was recovered. From the start, scientists from the National Museum of the Philippines and the Musee des Artes Asiatique-Guimet in Paris, inventoried all the artifacts and took care to ensure the best possible conservation conditions.
    フィリピン国立博物館とパリのアジア・ギネ美術館(the Musee des Artes Asiatique-Guimet in Paris)の科学者が最初から全ての人工遺物の 目録を作成し、ベストな保存条件を確保できるよう対応した。

    §05 The Excavation サンディエゴ号の発掘
    Neither the writings of Olivier van Noort nor those of Antonio de Morga, provided accurate information about the location of the wreck. The archives in Seville, which contained the testimony taken from the survivors during the investigation conducted several months after the sinking, held the key to the mystery. The galleon was resting 180 ft. (55m) beneath the sea, 8 mi. (1.4 km) off Fortune Island. The wreck was located in April 1991. The excavation was conducted over two diving seasons, from January to April 1991. The project was directed by Franck Goddio and financed by Foundation Elf. The restoration of the recovered objects was begun in Manila, under the supervision of the National Museum of the Philippines, and was completed in Paris during the first half of 1994, and was followed by a second exhibition in Madrid. After New York, these objects will be shown in the Darhlem Museum in Berlin and the tour will end in Manila as part of the celebration of the centinnial of the Philippines.

    §06 アストロラーベの発見 Nautical Astrolabe built at the end of the 16th century. Found among the remains of the San Diego Galleon. Bronze. 182.5 millimetres in diameter. 2,432 grams. National Museum of the Philippines.

    §07 Navigation in the 16th Century 16世紀の航海
    During the Renaissance, sailors braved the seas guided by only a few rudimentary navigational instruments. The astrolabe and the astronomical ring recovered from the San Diego demonstrate the rapid dissemination of the technology used in Europe. The astrolabe is one of six known examples dating from before 1600. It is very similar to an instrument in the collection of the Greenwich Museum in England, which almost certainly came from the Spanish Armada.

    The astronomical ring is the only known example of this type, in terms of both its mechanism and its shape. Its exact function has not yet been determined, although it is known that the position of the Philippes on the map was calculated using a similar instrument.

    Other navigational instruments were recovered from the San Diego such as sounding weights and a ruler, which were more suitable for reading charts and navigating in coastal waters than for voyages on the open ocean.

    These navigational instruments are a major scientific treasure. Recovered halfway around the world from Europe, they represent a much delayed but altogether appropriate reply to Chinese inventions such as the compass, an 11th Century Chinese innovation.

    §08 Astronomical ring dial with three rings and central compass. Recovered from the San Diego Galleon wreck. Bronze. 22.4 cm in diameter. National Museum of the Philippines.

    §09 サンディエゴ号模型の製作 Mr. Robert Carpentier built the model of San Diego in 1995 under the Scientific Director Mr. Michel L'Hour and Mr. Michel Daeffer. 1/50 Scale Model
    マニラの国立民俗学博物館に展示される沈船「サンティエゴ号」の模型である。 模型は1995年ロバート・カーペンティエによって製作された。縮尺1/50

    Mr. Robert Carpentier built the model of San Diego in 1995
    under the Scientific Director Mr. Michel L'Hour and
    Mr. Michel Daeffer. 1/50 Scale Model

    §10 Naval Architecture サンディエゴ号の造船技術
    Because historical significant shipwreck from the 16th century are rare, archaeologists must carefully examine the vestiges of the ship as well as the cargo. Once the tons of ballast stones which recovered the wreck had been removed, the excavators found a ship which was 100 ft (30m) long from stem to stern. The ship had been built ten years earlier in the shipyards of Cavite, using such heavy local woods as apitong and bitaog, species native to the Philippines, each rib, floor timber and futtock was studied, numbered and catalogued. Large parts such as the pimps(?) and rudder provided significant clues for the reconstruction. The investigations headed by Michel L'Hour and Michel Rival also focused on an analysis of the survivors' testimony. The reconstruction was based on contemporary treaties on shipbuilding and on antique ship models. The hypotheses on whch the reconstruction was based were defined by means of research tools such as CIRCE software. Using all these resources, a model was constructed, and is exhibited in the window on Fifth Avenue.
    vestige: 痕跡、遺跡

    §11 The San Diego - A 16th Century Galleon サンディエゴ号-16世紀のガレオン
    The discovery of the San Diego has significantly expanded our knowledge of Renaissance shipbuilding techniques. On the basis of the finds and the positioning of the wreck, the construction of the ship had been studied.

    The San Diego was a 3-masted trading ship built in 1590 in Cebu by Basque, Chinese and Philipino shipbuilders. It used different kinds of Asian woods and was about 35-40 meters long, about 12 meters wide and 8 meters high. It had at least 4 decks and could hold about 700 tons of cargo.

    Detailed investigations were only conducted on selected planks because of conservation problems. At large part of the wood remains were left under-water and covered with sand for future researches."

    サンディエゴ号について:16世紀のガレオン。 バスク、中国、フィリピンの造船者によって1590年に建造された3檣の貿易船であった。16世紀の沈船が発掘されるのは極めて珍しい。 さまざまなアジアの木材が用いられ、長さ約35-40メートル、幅約12メートル、高さ8メートル。少なくとも4層甲板をもち、 貨物約700トンを積載できた。詳細な調査は特定のプランクス (厚板 planks) のみで、保存上の問題があるので大半の部材は 海中の砂の中に埋め留められ、将来の研究に託された。

    §12 The Manila Galleons マニラ・ガレオン
    After the first circumnavigation of the globe in 1525, it was decided that the "Spice Islands” would be given to Portugal, and that the Islas de San Lazaro would be given to Spain. Nevertheless, for the next four decades the Philippines would be connected to Spain only by the tenuous link of occasional expeditions. The west-to- east maritime route was not discovered until the voyage of Andres de Urdaneta in 1565.

    The new ocean route linked the archipelago to the American continent. A new era of colonization began. Miguel Lopez de Legazpi undertook the conquest of Luzon. Manila was established in 1571. Thus began a profitable trans-Pacific trade, with Manila at the center.

    Beginning in 1573, two galleons sailed from Acapaulco each year, and returned from Manila laden with silk, spices and porcelains. Spanish doubloons, made from silver mined in Peru and minted in Mexico, flowed in the coffers of the Ming emperors, whose empire thereby entered the world economy."

    1525年に最初の世界周航がなされた後、「スパイス・アイランド」はポルトガルに帰属し、「サン・ラサロ諸島 Islas de San Lazaro」 はスペインに帰属すると決定された。にもかかわらず、次の40年間において、フィリピンはたまたまのスペインの諸探検の対象として 強く結び付けられことにはならなかった。西から東への西廻りの海上ルート(west-to-east maritime route)は、1565年のウルダネータ (Andres de Urdaneta)の航海まで発見されなかった。

    その新しい海のルートはフィリピン群島とアメリカ大陸とを結び付け、新しい植民地化の時代が始まった。 レガスピー(Miguel Lopez de Legazpi)はルソンの征服を行なった。マニラは1571年に創建され、マニラを本拠地にして利益を生む 太平洋横断交易が始まった。

    1573年になって始まったのが、2隻のガレオン船が毎年アカプルコから船出した。そして絹織物、スパイス、陶磁器などを満載して マニラから復航した。スペインの「昔のスペインのダブロン金貨」、ペルーで採掘されメキシコで鋳造(minted)された銀から 製造されたダブロン金貨、その財貨は中国の明の皇帝の国庫に流れ、それによって中華帝国は世界経済へと組み込まれた。

    §13 Europe and the Orient ヨーロッパと東洋
    Europe's fascination with the legendary nations of the East and the "wonders of the Orient" paved the way for the successful establishment of land routes where Chinese silk was able to reach Rome. The "Silk road" network between China and the Middle East did not only mean trading of luxury goods but also the exchange of religious ideas, art, literature and technical knowledge.

    The accounts of Marco Polo about the riches of Cathay (China), Xipangu (Japan) and India became the incentive for Columbus' westward voyage. With the Moor's expansion travel via this route was hindered, Spain and Portugal were forced to seek alternative sea routes. Magellan discovered the new route by circumnavigating the world. This route allowed for more goods, including spices, porcelain and silk to be brought to Europe.

    Through the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) the world was divided into a western Spanish part that included the America and the Pacific Ocean that was unknown at that time and an eastern Portuguese part that included Southeast Asia. This, however, did not last long because England, France and Holland decided to organize their own expeditions.

    マルコポーロの話、カタイ(中国)、ジパング(日本)、インドの豊かさはコロンブスの西廻りの航海に向かわせた。 モーア人の膨張によって陸の東西ルートは妨害され、ポルトガルとスペインは別の海上ルートを模索することを余儀なくされた。 マゼランは世界を周回することで新しいルートを発見した。このルートはさらに物品、スパイス、陶磁器などをヨーロッパにもたらす ことになった。

    1494年のトルデシリャス条約(Treaty of Tordesillas) によって、世界は当時知られていなかったアメリカと太平洋を含む西半球を スペインに二分割し、東南アジアを含む東半球をポルトガルに分割した。だが、英国、フランス、オランダが自身の探検を組織することになり、 長くは続かなかった。

    §14 The Pacific Ocean - the "Spanish Lake" 太平洋-「スペインの湖」
    The bodies of water between the coast of Mexico and Peru and the new territory, the Philippines, became known as the "Spanish Lake". It served as the route for the galleon trade that made use of the winds and sea currents prevailing in the area. From 1565 through 1813, ships crossed this Spanish Lake. Westward voyages from Acapulco began by February or March and took three months that followed a route along the equator. The return trip from Manila to Acapulco, would in turn leave by June or July and took twice as long.

    Up to four ships were used all year round. Spanish merchants used Indian slaves to extract silver from South American mines for export China and in return, luxury goods, including porcelain, silk and spices were sent to Mexico. Mule trains were used to transport the goods over land from Acapulco to Vera Cruz where they were shipped off to Seville and other places."

    メキシコやペルーの海岸と、新しい領地フィリピンとの間に横たわる海は「スペインの湖」と知られるようになった。その海に卓越する 風や海流を利用したガレオン交易ルートとして貢献サーブした。1565年から1813年まで、ガレオン船がその「スペインの湖」を行き来した。 アカプルコから西廻りの航海は2月または3月までには始まり、赤道に沿ったルートをたどり、3か月間かかった。マニラからアカプルコへの 復航は、6月または7月までに出帆し、往航の2倍の期間を要した。年間を通じて最大4隻が用いられた。

    スペイン商船は、南米の鉱山から銀を採掘し、中国に輸出するためにインド人奴隷を使った。代わって陶磁器、絹、スパイスなどの贅沢品が メキシコに輸送された。荷運び用のらばの隊列をもって、アカプルコから陸路でカリブ海側の港市ベラクルスまでそれら商品が運ばれ、 さらにスペインのセビリヤなどへと海送された。

    §15 The Spice Route, The Road スパイス・ルート
    Eurasia is a single land mass which extends from Korean to Spain. Its inhabitants have been in contact with one another since ancient times.

    " Alexander the Great's military expedition to India in the 14th Century B.C. and diplomatic missions dispatched by the Emperor Han Wudi in the 2nd Century A.D. are two of the earliest examples in a long history of political and military contacts.

    At the beginning of the modern era, two routes were established: one overland, the SILKROAD, and the other by sea, THE SPICE ROUTE. The Silk Road had been one of the most important arteries of communication since appropriately the year 1000, while the Spice Route grew in importance, especially during the Renaissance.

    §16 Doctor Antonio de Morga: Captain of the San Diego サンディエゴ号の艦長アントニオ・デ・モルガ
    Author of SUCESOS DE LAS ISLAS FILIPINAS, Containing an account of sinking of SAN Diego, Published in Mexico, 1609
    Eventually annotated by Jose Rizal with a prologue by Professor Ferdinand Blumentritt

    §17 Antonio de Morga (1559 - 1636) アントニオ・デ・モルガ
    Morga came from a family of bankers in Seville but decided to have an administrative career. He was appointed as Advisor and Lieutenant General to the Governor of the Philippines in 1593 by the Spanish King. This did not make him happy being posted "at the ends of the earth." He saw his chance to change his fortune when he heard the news of a Dutch pirate ship entering Philippine waters.

    Through political maneuvering he was promoted to admiral and later commissioned the San Diego, a merchant vessel anchored in Manila, to be a battelship. Morga thought that a swift victory over the exhausted intruders would put him in a favorable stead with the King.

    Morga's ignorance as a captain was proven during the sea battle with the Dutch. He gave wrong commands that led to the sinking of the San Diego, but as one of the few survivors, he successfully depicted as a hero of the battle and even got promoted. He was sent to Mexico in 1603 and to Peru in 1615.

    アントニオ・デ・モルガ (1559 - 1636)の略歴: モルガンはセビリヤの銀行家の出身。スペイン国王により1593年フィリピン総督の顧問および 中将(Lieutenant Genera)に任命された。当時商船であったサンディエゴ号がマニラに停泊した、その船を軍船に転換するのを任された。 そして、折りしもフィリピン水域に侵入してきたオランダの海賊船「モーリシャス号」を拿捕し、フィリピンから離任するための 戦功をようとした。モルガンはその海戦で艦長としての無知をさらけ出し、彼の誤った指揮によりサンディエゴを沈没させてしまったと される一方で、目撃者の証言から海戦の英雄であると評され、めでたく出世を得て1603年メキシコへ、1615年にはペルーへと赴任した。

    §18 Olivier Van Noort (1558/9 - 1627) オリヴィエール・バン・モールト
    Olivier van Noort was a tavern owner in Rotterdam. He was described as a humorous, courageous, stubborn, but enterprising man. In 1598, he was entrusted to command a small fleet financed by some merchants and the Dutch stockholder, Maurice of Nassau. His mission was to ascertain the trade route to the Spice Islands and, along the way, plunder any vessel he could find.

    In the latter part of 1600, van Noort, reached the Philippines with two ships. On December 14, the battle between his flagship Mauritius and Morga's San Diego took place in front of Manila Bay. Although far outnumbered, 59 to 450, his men fought bravely. Van Noort tricked the Spanish into fleeing by setting fire to his own sails. Through his nautical skills and tactical cunning, he was able to escape the Spaniards.

    One year later, van Noort returned to Rotterdam broke. The expediton was a failure. But his knowledge of the trade route, allowed Dutch participation in the spice trade in the Moluccas. Belatedly acknowledged, he finally took a post as garrison commander until 1626 when he retired.

    オリヴィエール・バン・モールト (1558/9 - 1627)
    モールトは1598年小さな船隊を任され、スパイス・アイランドへの交易ルートを確認し、道中で発見するどんな船も略奪するということが 任務であった。1600年後半に2隻の船でフィリピンにたどりついた。12月14日旗艦「モーリシャス号」とモルガが指揮する「サンディエゴ号」 との海戦がマニラ湾外で勃発した。モールトは自船の帆に火を放つというトリックを仕掛け、彼の航海術や戦術的狡猾さでもってスペイン側の 攻撃から逃れた。

    1年後路ロッテルダムに戻る。探検は失敗した。だが、交易ルートに関する彼の知識はモルッカでの香料貿易へのオランダの関与を可能にした。 彼は後に守備隊司令官(garrison commander)としてのポストに1626年まで就き、同年に退職した。

    §19 Tools from the San Diego I/サンディエゴ号から引き揚げられた道具: 金属製品、ハンマー、大きな 南京錠(pad lock)、ガラスの皿, ろくろ(lathe)など
    Salt water deteriorated the large part of the organic material on board. On the other hand, metal objects were recognizabel only by the shape of the concretions. Among the metal objects recovered were hammer and a large pad lock that was probably used to secure the weapon cabinet. Also found was a glass plate with a wooden frame that probably came from the captain's cabin.

    §20 Tools Found from the San Diego II/サンディエゴ号から引き揚げられた道具: シーチェストの錠前など
    The cabins of the officers were outfitted with wood furniture. The decorations were mostly made of wood with few metal ornaments with handles. Locks were also used for the different sea chests. Recognizable is the difference between the European lock and the Japanese pad lock, which is still used today. One important find was a well-preserved wood pole that has been worked on the lathe that had a hammock tied to it. These are still widely used today in Southeast Asia.

    §21 The Wreck of the San Diego サンディエゴ、1600年12月14日午後3頃に沈没
    Antonio de Morga sailed into battel with the Mauritius, commanded by Olivier van Noort, early in the morning, Morga neglected to inform his Vice Admiral Juan de Alcega. Morga at first seemed to gain the upper hand, and his his soldiers even captured the standard of the Mauritius. The seasick Spanish admiral, however, failed to follow up on his advantage despite pleas from his officers and crew and soon last control of the situation.

    A major leak was discovered in the hold, obviously a result of the violent impact. Morga gave the fatal order t o cast off the lines holding the ships together.

    The astonished Dutch could not believe their eyes. When the lines had finally been cut, the San Diego sailed 330-660 feet (100-200m), nosed over and went straight to the bottom. The time was appropriately 3:00 p.m. on Thursday, December 14, 1600. Three hundred people are thought to have drowned. Another hundred apparently survived by swimming to nearby Fortune Island. Morga himself was rescued by his secretary.

    §22 The Sinking of the San Diego サンディエゴ号の沈没
    On December 14, 1600, about 50 kilometers southwest of Manila, the Spanish battleship San Diego under the command of Morga clashed with the Dutch ship Mauritius. All odds were in favor of the Spanish. The San Diego was four times larger than the Mauritius, it had a crew of 450 rested men and massive fore power with 14 cannons taken from the fortress in Manila.

    Unfortunately, this was also the weekness of the San Diego. Morga had the ship full of people, weapons and muntions but too little ballast to weigh the ship down for easier maneuverability. While the gun ports had been widened for more firing range, not one cannon could be fired because water enter through the enlarged holes.

    The San Diego sprung a leak beneath/ the waterline either from the first cannonball fired by the Mauritius or from the impact of ramming the Dutch at full speed. Because of inexperience, Morga failed to issue orders to save the San Diego, it sank "like a stone" when he ordered his men to cast off from the burning Mauritius.

    The events were recorded in Morga's book, "Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas". The book portrayed Morga as a hero of the battle. Olivier van Noort also wrote about the battle.

    サンディエゴの沈没: マニラの南西50km沖合でモルガ指揮のサンディエゴ号とオランダ船モーリシャス号が戦闘。サンディエゴ号は モーリシャス号より4倍も大きかった、マニラの要塞から持ち込んだ14の大砲装備、450人もの休養中の兵員など。 不幸にもサンディエゴ号の弱み: 人員、兵器類、武器弾薬、操縦性を容易にする船のバラストが余りにも少なかった。モルガンの経験不足で 結局は船を救えなかった。

    §23 A Threatened Manila Organizes Its Defense モーリシャス号によるオランダの功勢の脅威とマニラの防衛体制の組織化
    In response to the Dutch incrursion into Philippne waters, Manila immediately set about preparing its defense. It simultaneously took measures to fortify the capital and Cavite, its port and arsenal, and armed several ships to pursue the enemy.

    The operation was commanded by the "oidor" Antonio de Morga, a bureacrat with little military experience. The Spanish fleet, composed of two ships and supported by smaller native boats, set sail on December 12, 1600.

    The battle plan was prepared on December 13, and the battle between the San Diego and the Mauritius began at dawn on the 14th, in a strong wind and heavy seas.

    §24 Weapon Which Could Not Withstand the Pasage of Time 時代の流れに取り残された武器
    A comparison of the testimony of various witnesses proves the accuracy of a statement by the Vice-Admiral of the Fleet, Captain Juan de Alcega, who claimed that "(on board) there were too many people, too many weapons and too much ammunition..."

    Nevertheless, centuries under water have destroyed most of the ship's weaponry. The defensive equipment - helmets, backplates, breastplates and coats of mail - survives only in the form of a few severely corroded fragments, while even less remains of the offensive weapons - harquebuses, muskets and swords.

    All that has been found are a few accessories such as pins, buckles, hangers and medallions, which in themselves prove that the ship carried a large contingent of armed men.

    §25 The Weaponry of the San Diego サンディエゴ号の武装
    According to the inventory lists, Morga was allowed to bring 14 cannons onto the San Diego from the fortress of Manila. The cannons were outstanding examples of the bronze casting techniques of that time and gave an excellent overview of the artillery at the end of the 16th century.

    The cannons were fabricated in the Philippines, Flanders and Portugal. There were 8 grades of caliber which requied different types of munition. The iron cannon balls were for the smaller cannons and the stone cannon balls for the bigger ones. The cannon balls weighed between one and seven kilograms. The cannons from Portugal were more advanced and were called breech loaders.

    A glimpse of the soldier's outfits came from pieces of armour, belts, and shoe buckles recovered, as well as swords and muskets. In addition, a ball mould to press musket and arquebus balls was found.

    A pair of Japanese swords and two dozen sword decorative elements point to the possibility of high ranking Samurais on board, probably mercenaries.

    Spanish galleon trade route: スペインのガレオン貿易ルート
    inter-island trade: 島嶼間の交易
    East India Company trade route: 東インド会社の貿易ルート
    Marco Polo: 丸子・ポーロ/the riches of Cathay (China), Xipangu (Japan): カタイ(中国)、ジパング(日本)

    [画像撮影: 2018.3.24. フィリピン・マニラ/国立民族学博物館にて][拡大画像: x28162.jpg][拡大画像: x28163.jpg]

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